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What is ISO and What Does ISO Mean?

What is ISO and What Does ISO Mean?The Misconception:
What does "ISO" mean? Ask anyone seemingly "in-the-know" and they'll tell you "ISO" is an initialism for "International Standards Organization" and thus it is pronounced "eye-ess-oh." Sounds pretty convincing, but this is false.

Why This is Wrong:
There is no such thing as the "International Standards Organization." Go ahead, Google it. It doesn't exist. So then what does "ISO" stand for? Nothing. It's not an initialism or an acronym.

Allow me to explain...

Here's where the confusion comes from: although there isn't an "International Standards Organization," there is an "International Organization for Standardization." The International Organization for Standardization is a corporation based in Geneva, Switzerland that sets all sorts of international standards for manufacturing and engineering, one of which is film sensitivity in photography. Their whole deal is getting the world on the same page with standard regulations, measurements, and certifications.

Then what is "ISO?" It's this company's name, that's all. No different than "Pepsi" or "Honda." But "ISO" obviously is not an initialism or acronym because the correct acronym (in English anyway) would be IOS. So then what does ISO mean? Well, it's derived from the Greek root "isos," which means "equal" - like in "isotope" and "isosceles." And if you look at the website for the International Organization for Standardization, you'll find an explanation on why they chose this Greek root instead of an acronym to represent their company (source: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/about.htm):

Because 'International Organization for Standardization' would have different acronyms in different languages (IOS in English, OIN in French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), our founders decided to give it the short form ISO. ISO is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of our name is always ISO.

Couldn't have said it better myself.

The Truth:
So "ISO" is not an acronym. No doubt about that. It's just a company's logo written in all capital letters derived from the Greek root isos. And just like you wouldn't spell out "PEPSI" every time you ordered one, you shouldn't spell out "ISO" every time you talk about it. That's why "ISO" is correctly pronounced "EYE-so." No matter how many times you hear it pronounced "eye-ess-oh," and even though everybody and their mother says it "eye-ess-oh," it just simply isn't correct. Doesn't matter if a guy has been taking pictures for decades or working with ISO standards for 50 years, if he says it "eye-ess-oh," he's wrong.

And just for good measure, here's a video summarizing it all:

My Thoughts and Rants:
Alright, I'll be honest. For awhile I was guilty of thinking ISO stood for International Standards Organization and for years I pronounced it "eye-ess-oh." That was based partly on misinformation from an online resource (What?! You mean Yahoo Answers isn't always correct?) and mostly from my own assumptions. After all, it made perfect sense. But that's what happens when I assume. I make an ass out of u and me.

So I can't really fault people for saying it "eye-ess-oh." It's in all capital letters so it certainly looks like an acronym. And the majority of shooters say it that way even though it's incorrect. But hey, just goes to show you how quickly false information can become "fact."

My only rant on this is that a couple years back I saw on Yahoo Answers that someone posted a question asking what is ISO and what does ISO stand for. Some know-nothing do-gooder happily answered with "It stands for 'International Standards Organization.'" Seeing this error, I politely corrected the answer with the information I stated in this blog post. All was finally right in the world. But sure enough, a few days later I get a notification that someone has "improved" my answer. I go to check it out and some idiot changed it back to the wrong answer! 

Don't get your information from some dumb yahoo on Yahoo Answers. And don't let anyone try to correct you into saying it the wrong way. It's "EYE-so."

Everyone say it with me now: EYE-so!

 

The excellent video and audio production was done by my brother Blake Carver. Check him out at www.BlakeCarverCreative.com.

Photography Tips: Backlighting with Plants

Skill Level: Beginner

When beginners set out to photograph things like flowers and leaves, the natural inclination is to approach the subject from the front, in sunlight, with the sun hitting the front of your subject. It makes sense after all - you need some light on your subject in order for the camera to take a picture. There's even the old adage in photography to shoot with the sun to your back.

But this approach to photographing a subject tends to yield boring results. Front lighting (that is, when the light is hitting the front of your subject) just isn't interesting. Front lighting flattens out your subject, squashing depth. Think of deer in headlights or on-camera flash. It may get the job done in terms of being able to see your subject, but it definitely isn't pretty.

You could, of course, utilize side lighting to rake across your subject and create depth. You could also opt for overhead lighting which, depending on how strong the light source is, may or may not be flattering. Better yet, you could utilize soft lighting like that of an overcast day. But one really fun and really interesting use of light in photographing plants is backlighting.

Backlighting (that is, when the light is coming towards you from behind your subject) gives semi-translucent subjects like leaves, flower petals, and ice crystals a sort of glowing effect that adds a nice bit of "pop" to your photo. With brightly colors flowers and fall leaves, backlighting can be a great way to accentuate the color, making the pigment glow like a neon sign. It's also a great way to bring out all the little veins and texture in a leaf.

And if you can position yourself so that the backlit plant has a dark, shadowed background, those leaves or flower petals will glow like fireworks on the fourth of July. Check out these examples to see what I mean:

Finding backlighting is easy. Just head outside on sunny afternoon or morning and find yourself a leaf or flower in direct sunlight. But instead of approaching the subject from the front (where the light is hitting), move around to the back of it so that the sunlight is coming towards you. This works best when the sun is lower in the sky. So avoid high noon and stick to morning or afternoon. But don't worry, this doesn't have to be done right at sunrise or sunset.

Working with backlighting can be a little tricky. To make it easier on yourself, keep these points in mind:

  • You don't want the sunlight actually hitting the front of your lens. Your lens needs to be shaded by a tree, overhang, lens hood, or a carefully placed free hand. If the sunlight does hit the front of your lens, you'll get lens flare - that's those little semi-translucent circles of red, orange, green or purple spread across your picture.
  • You don't need to have the sun directly in front of you to get backlighting. The sun can be quite a bit higher or to the left or right of the picture. But if you get the glow on your subject, all is good.
  • Unless you're shooting in manual, your camera may want to make the picture too dark as a result of the backlighting. Camera's don't do very well with backlighting. Make sure you stay in control of the brightness by using the exposure compensation tool on your camera.
  • Try the picture at different brightnesses using the exposure compensation tool. A much darker or lighter version may look really cool.
  • Your camera may have a hard time focusing when working with backlighting. You may need to manually focus your lens.

When winter rolls around, try backlighting on icicles or frost-covered plants to get a great sparkly effect. Like this:

Backlighting can keep you busy for hours when photographing flowers and leaves. So the next time you're out enjoying nature's beauty, give backlighting a try.

Photography Tips: Understanding DSLR Lenses

Skill Level: Beginner

If you've ever shopped around for a lens, you know that the titles of lenses can get pretty lengthy and confusing. With all the different abbreviations, numbers and labels, the name of a lens can look more like a complex algebraic equation than a product title. So that's why I've decided to put together this blog post to help bring some clarity to the convoluted science of naming a lens.

Here are 2 examples of what a lens title might look like:

I mean really...it's a little ridiculous how complicated those titles are. I'm sure they make perfect sense to the marketing geniuses who came up with all these fancy titles, but to the average person, it's practically a bunch of meaningless letters and numbers. So let's break the names down and look at each part of it individually.

1. Lens Focal Length Range

Starting with the core of the lens title, we have the lens focal length range. The lens focal length is always measured in millimeters and it basically indicates how "zoomed in" the lens can go. Higher focal length numbers (e.g. 300mm) mean the lens will zoom in further, whereas lower focal length numbers (e.g. 20mm) mean the lens will have a wider view. For instance:

On the left: 28mm. On the right: 70mm (full-frame camera).

If the lens has a range of focal lengths, like 55-200mm, then the lens can zoom from 55mm all the way out to 200mm. Lenses that don't zoom are called "prime lenses" and they will be indicated with just a single focal length number - like the Canon 50mm f/1.4 USM.

2. Maximum Aperture

After the focal length range, the title will have an aperture number or a range of aperture numbers. This indicates the lens' maximum aperture. In other words, it tells you what the widest available aperture is for that lens. For instance, on the Canon 50mm f/1.4 USM, the widest aperture you can use is f/1.4 (remember that the smaller the f-number, the wider the aperture).

But then what's the smallest aperture you can use? Well, you'll have to dig a little deeper into the lens specifications to find that out. The minimum aperture for a lens (that is, the smallest opening) is never indicated in the title. Only the maximum aperture is. That's because the majority of customers don't care what the smallest aperture is. Most people want lenses that let in more light, not less. Only us landscape photographers care about the smallest aperture a lens can use.

Alright, now it gets a little tricky, so stay with me...

Some lenses have a range of apertures indicated after the focal length, like the Nikon AF VR 80-400mm f/4.5-5.6D ED lens. In this case the maximum aperture for the lens is listed as "f/4.5-5.6". When you have a range of apertures like this, that means the available maximum aperture will vary depending on how zoomed-in you are. The first aperture in the range indicates the maximum aperture for the short end of the zoom range. The second aperture in the range indicates the maximum aperture for the long end of the zoom range. This is called a "variable maximum aperture."

So in this example, the maximum aperture of the lens when you're set at 80mm will be f/4.5. But when you zoom the lens into 400mm, the maximum aperture decreases a bit to f/5.6. Having a variable maximum aperture like this allows the manufacturer to make the lens more compact and less expensive.

If your lens has a zoom range, but only 1 aperture listed, that means the lens' maximum aperture will be the same throughout the entire zoom range. For instance, on the Canon 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II, the lens can open all the way up to f/2.8, regardless of whether the lens is at 70mm or 200mm.

3. Features and Other Fancy Marketing Terms

All the other letters and abbreviations in the title of a lens will indicate features, quality and other marketing terms. For instance, if the maximum aperture has an "L" after it on a Canon lens - like the Canon 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II - then the lens is classified in its professional line of lenses. That means it'll most likely be weather sealed, the glass will be better quality, the image quality will be top-notch and the overall build will be more rugged.

There are a ton of different labels indicating all sorts of features and specs. Nikon especially has a very convoluted, over-complicated set of designations. Since there are so many, I won't bother defining all of them here, but I will address some of the most common ones. For a complete list of Nikon lens labels, check out this great article at DPanswers.com. For Canon's, here's a good article over at BobAtkins.com.

CANON

  • EF - "Electronic Focus" - This is the designation for all lenses fitting modern EOS bodies
  • EF-S - Same as "EF" except the lens is specifically designed for and will only fit APS-C format DSLRs like the 60D, 7D and Rebel series cameras (in other words, it won't fit full-frame cameras like the 5D or 1Dx)
  • USM - "Ultrasonic Motor" - This is what Canon calls their ultra-fast and ultra-quiet auto focus motor. USM lenses focus quickly, quietly and will typically have full-time manual override
  • IS - "Image Stabilization" - These lenses have built-in optical image stabilizer to help combat camera shake
  • L - This will come after the maximum aperture and it designates Canon's line of professional-grade lenses
  • DO - "Diffractive Optics" - This is a technology Canon uses in a few of its lenses that allows them to make telephoto lenses much more compact
  • Macro - A true macro lens will allow you to focus closer than a non-macro lens - good for photographing close-ups

NIKON

  • Nikkor - This is just Nikon's brand name for their DSLR lenses
  • AF - "Auto Focus" - If the lens has "AF" only (not "AF-S"), then the lens auto-focuses using the AF motor built-in to the camera. In other words, the lens itself has no AF motor. It relies on the camera body to drive the focus. Some Nikon cameras don't have a focus motor in the body, so they can't auto focus with these lenses.
  • AF-I - These lenses autofocus using an internal (that's what the "I" is for) AF motor built in to the lens instead of into the camera body as described above
  • AF-S  - The "S" indicates that it utilizes Nikon's current "Silent Wave" motor to auto focus. This type of AF motor is quieter and typically faster than the older AF-I motor
  • VR - "Vibration Reduction" - These lenses have built-in optical image stabilizer to help combat camera shake
  • D or G - It's kind of complicated. Check out this explanation at DPanswers.com
  • DX - This indicates that the lens is designed for and will only fit Nikon's DX "digital format" DSLR cameras
  • FX - This indicates that the lens will work on full-frame Nikon DSLRs as well as digital format DSLRs
  • ED - "Extra-Low Dispersion" - Indicates that the lens utilizes some special glass to help reduce chromatic aberration
  • IF - "Internal Focus"  - This means that the lens focuses by moving elements inside the lens barrel instead of moving the front element. As a result, the front of the lens won't extend out or rotate when focusing.
  • Micro - Nikon's indication for a macro lens