Nick Carver Photography Blog

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Digital Photography Tips: Why Shutter Priority Mode is Useless

Skill Level: Intermediate

Aperture Priority ModeYou know all those shooting modes on top of your camera? Well here's the deal: most of them are useless. In fact, once you know what you're doing, pretty much all but 2 of them are useless. Once you get a good handle on shutter speed, aperture, and ISO, the only modes you need are Aperture Priority Mode ("Av" or "A" mode) and Manual Mode ("M"). All the full auto and "Scene" modes don't give you enough control, so the creative decisions are in your camera's hands, not yours. That's not good. Same with Program Mode ("P"). Sure, you can control the ISO and the exposure compensation, which is a huge improvement over full auto, but the camera is still taking care of the all-important aperture and shutter.

So then what about Shutter Priority Mode ("Tv" or "S" mode)? Yep, that's useless, too.

Okay, okay. This is where some advanced amateurs throw up their hands in protest. "How could shutter priority mode be useless? What about when you want to control the shutter? How about when you want to freeze action with a fast shutter or get that silky water looks with a slow shutter? You need to be able to select the exact shutter speed you want."

I hear what you're saying, but Shutter Priority Mode is still useless.

So here's the deal with Shutter Priority looks good on paper and it's easy to make it sound useful, but it just isn't. In fact, camera makers know Shutter Priority Mode is useless. That's why they didn't even put it in cameras until quite a long time after they invented Aperture Priority Mode. They had the technology to do it once they invented Aperture Priority Mode, but they just didn't put it in their cameras because they knew it wasn't a logical way to adjust your settings. This is also why you'll rarely find a pro using Shutter Priority Mode.

Alright, quick disclaimer: I'm sure there are one or two really rare and ultra-specific exceptions where using Shutter Priority Mode would work just fine. But I promise you that in these rare instances you could just as easily get your settings in Aperture Priority Mode, and these instances are so uncommon that it's not even worth addressing. Actually, I can't even think of an example, so that should tell you something.

So let's look at why this mode is so useless:

1. The shutter doesn't need to be that specific

Here's the number one reason Shutter Priority Mode is useless: the shutter speed just never really needs to be that specific. It's not logical to put in an exact shutter speed in 99.9% of situations because there's just no reason for the shutter speed to be super specific. Often times the shutter speed can fluctuate hugely on a given subject and the picture will look no different.

Let's consider a simple landscape. You're on a tripod photographing a mountain. You're not going anywhere and the mountain's not going anywhere, so it doesn't matter if your shutter speed is 1/8000 or 30 seconds - nothing's moving and so nothing will look different.

Alright that's an easy one, but what about sports?

Same deal. Let's say you're photographing a soccer game and you've decided that 1/1000 will freeze your athletes. Well what happens if you use 1/2000 instead? Of course, they'll be just as frozen. And what if you use 1/4000? Yep, still frozen. 1/8000? Frozen.

Okay, so then it's not that you need 1/1000, you need 1/1000 or faster. You don't need an exact shutter speed, you need a range of shutter speeds.

Shutter Priority Mode is Useless

This was taken at 1/2000, but it would
look no different at 1/1000 or 1/4000

How about doing some portraits with a 50mm lens? Well, your model is posing nice and still for you, so all you need to freeze is your camera shake. On a 50mm lens, camera shake is frozen at 1/50 or faster. So again, what happens if you use 1/100 or 1/250 or 1/4000 instead? Everything will be just as frozen. You don't need 1/50, you need 1/50 or faster.

See the thing with motion and the shutter speed is it's just like water. Once it hits a certain limit, it's frozen. Once water hits 32-degrees Fahrenheit, it freezes. It's not any more frozen at 10-degrees or 5-degrees or -20-degrees. Once it's frozen, it's frozen - same goes for moving subjects and the shutter speed.

Then what about when you want to blur motion, like getting that silky effect on a waterfall? Same deal here. The waterfall will look completely silky at about 1" (1 second). So what if you use 2"? Still silky. What if you use 10"? Yep, still silky. Once motion is frozen, it's frozen, and once it's moving, it's moving.

Shutter Priority Mode is Useless

This was taken at 2.5 seconds, but it
would look no different at 1" or 10"

Even when you're going for specific effect on the motion, like trying to get some motion blur, but not too much motion blur. In that case, it still doesn't need to be exact. Typically a range of shutter speeds will create virtually the exact same effect on motion blur.

Shutter Priority Mode is Useless

Like in this photo of a helicopter, I want some motion in the blades, but not too much. I used a shutter speed of 1/160. But the motion would have looked nearly identical at shutter speeds from 1/80 to 1/250A minor change in the shutter speed equates to a minor change in how motion is rendered.

2. The aperture is too important to let the camera control

If you're controlling the shutter speed as you would in Shutter Priority Mode, then the camera is controlling the aperture. The aperture affects depth of field (background blur). So as light fluctuates and the camera adjusts the aperture to compensate, the background blur on your images will fluctuate, too.

Let's consider the soccer game example again. And let's say I put in a shutter speed of 1/1000 using Shutter Priority Mode. As I point the camera up the field, my camera chooses an aperture of f/4.5. Then I follow the action down the field where the light is a little different because of the angle of the sun. In this new light, my camera chooses f/8. F/4.5 creates a smaller DOF than f/8, so now all my pictures pointed up the field have blurrier backgrounds than my pictures pointed downfield.

But let's try the same situation in Aperture Priority Mode instead. I decide that I want a blurry background, so I put in f/4.5. When I point my camera upfield, wouldn't you know it, my shutter comes out to 1/1000. Good - I need 1/1000 or faster to freeze the action. Okay, now I follow the action downfield again to the different light. My aperture won't jump to f/8 this time because I have it locked in at f/4.5. Instead, my camera adjusts the shutter for the changing light, bringing it up to 1/3200. No problem there, 1/3200 will freeze the action just as good as 1/1000. So the result is a consistent background blur (because the aperture didn't change) and consistently frozen motion (because the shutter speed stayed above my threshold of 1/1000).

By controlling the aperture directly in Aperture Priority Mode, you're not leaving the all-important DOF up to the camera. Background blur is simply too important to let the camera control! Because after all, a small change in the aperture can dramatically alter the photo, but an identical change in the shutter speed often results in no noticeable difference in the image.

3. The shutter is less likely to hit a "dead end"

Let's look at the entire range of available shutter speeds:

30   25   20   15   13   10   8   6   5   4   3.2   2.5   2   1.6   1.3   1   0.8   0.6   0.5   0.4   0.3   1/4   1/5   1/6   1/8   1/10   1/13   1/15   1/20   1/25   1/30   1/40   1/50   1/60   1/80   1/100   1/125   1/160   1/200   1/250   1/320   1/400   1/500   1/640   1/800   1/1000   1/1250   1/1600   1/2000   1/2500   1/3200   1/4000   1/5000   1/6400   1/8000

Now let's look at the entire range of available apertures on a typical pro lens:

f/2.8   f/3.2   f/3.5   f/4   f/4.5   f/5   f/5.6   f/6.3   f/7.1   f/8   f/9   f/10
f/11   f/13   f/14   f/16   f/18   f/20   f/22

You can see that there are many more shutter speeds available than apertures. But in every situation you take pictures, there needs to be an aperture to match your shutter speed. So here's an all-too-common problem with Shutter Priority Mode: often times you'll pick a shutter speed that has no matching aperture. In other words, you've selected a shutter speed that is too fast (lets in too little light) or too slow (lets in too much light) and there is simply no aperture to match it. The aperture hits a dead end.

The camera warns you when this happens, by the way. If you choose a shutter speed that's too fast or too slow for the apertures to match it, the camera will flash the aperture number at you or indicate "HI" (for "high light") or "LO" (for "Low Light") where the aperture number should be. This is the camera telling you that it's trying to find an aperture to match your shutter, but it hit a dead end and can't go any further. As a result, your picture is going to come out too bright or too dark.

But if you shoot in Aperture Priority Mode instead, you're controlling the variable with fewer options (the aperture). And so the camera will pretty much always be able to find a shutter speed to match your selection on the aperture. In other words, the camera won't hit a dead end because there are just so many shutter speeds available.

4. You have just as much control over the shutter in Aperture Priority Mode

This is where beginners ask, "Then what about those times when the shutter speed is your top priority, like when shooting sports or wildlife? Shouldn't you be in the mode where you can control the shutter so that you can ensure it's correct?"

No. You don't need to control the shutter speed directly in order to make it come out right. Sure, Aperture Priority Mode doesn't let you control the shutter speed directly, but that doesn't mean you can't control the shutter speed (wow, man, that's deep).

Here's what I mean: so long as you're in control 2 of the 3 exposure variables (shutter speed, aperture, and ISO), you essentially have control of all 3. With 2/3 control, the camera will be forced into a corner on the third and you can get what you want out of it. So, if you don't like your shutter speed in Aperture Priority Mode, just do what you would do in any mode: change the ISO and/or the aperture. Need a faster shutter? Just raise the ISO or open the aperture - that's what's going to have to happen anyway, regardless or what mode you're in.

So bottom line is this: don't bother with Shutter Priority Mode unless you have a really good reason to do so. Aperture Priority Mode is a much more useful mode and will afford you all the same control over the shutter as Shutter Priority Mode. And don't let anyone try to convince you of the usefulness of Shutter Priority Mode...that's a red flag that they might not know what they're talking about.

To learn more about shutter speed, aperture, ISO, exposure, and much more, check out my Introduction to DSLR Photography Online Course for beginners and my Understanding Exposure for Beginners Photography Class in Orange County, CA.

Digital Photography Tips: Auto White Balance Kills Color

View on YouTube to see this photography tip in HD

Photography Tips: Don't Use Auto White BalanceSkill Level: Intermediate

I've had a lot of students ask me lately why the colors in their photos are coming out inaccurate, so I thought it would be fitting to post a digital photography tip all about auto white balance. I'm marking this photography tip as "Skill Level: Intermediate" because I'm going to assume you already know what white balance does and how to control it. And if you don't know what it is, I offer group classes and online courses that can get you up to speed.

The topic of this photography tip pertains specifically to auto white balance - often abbreviated "AWB." The auto white balance setting is like many automatic functions on your camera: it works well enough a lot of the time, but it can really screw things up if you're not paying attention.

Auto white balance works like this: it looks at the photo you're taking and it tries to determine if there's too much of one color family. If it sees too much of one color, it floods the picture with the opposite color to try and cancel it out.

So let's say you have some incandescent lighting overhead when you're taking a picture of your family. Well, incandescent lighting is throwing out a ton of yellow-orange light. So auto white balance sees the excessive warm tones and says, "That's way too much yellow-orange," and so it floods the picture with blue to cancel it out. This is assuming auto white balance is doing a good job. Many cameras don't add quite enough blue in this scenario and leave your indoor shots looking too yellow.

That's the basic concept of auto white balance - if the camera sees too much of one color, it deems that an "unwanted color cast" and then tries to eliminate it by adding the opposite color. This approach to eliminating unwanted color casts is good enough for many pictures. And when you have to shoot quick, good enough is good enough.

But here's the problem with auto white could it possibly know the difference between a color cast you want and a color cast you don't want? The yellow color cast from incandescent lighting is a color cast you don't want, but the yellow color cast from fall leaves is. The camera can't make the distinction between these two. Your camera is dumb! It doesn't even know what it's looking at. It just sees too much yellow, regardless of where that yellow is coming from.

So when you shoot fall leaves on auto white balance, what ends up happening is this; the camera's auto white balance sees a bunch of yellow and it says, "Well, that's way too much yellow. Must be a color cast my photographer doesn't want," and so it floods the picture with blue to tone down the yellow. The result is fall color that isn't so fall color-y anymore.

Here are some examples:

Photography Tips: Auto White Balance

 AWB (above) vs. the accurate shade setting (below)

Photography Tips: Auto White Balance



Photography Tips: Auto White Balance

  AWB (above) vs. the accurate cloudy setting (below)

Photography Tips: Auto White Balance



Photography Tips: Auto White Balance

 AWB (above) vs. the accurate daylight setting (below)

Photography Tips: Auto White Balance


Same thing on a sunset. The auto white balance sees a bunch of warm tones from the setting sun, assumes you don't want them, and then floods the picture with blue to tone it down.

Photography Tips: Auto White Balance

 AWB (above) vs. the accurate daylight setting (below)

Photography Tips: Auto White Balance

As you can see, auto white balance can really destroy colors in your photos. That leads to my very simple digital photography tip: when photographing subjects with strong color casts, don't use auto white balance. Instead, use the appropriate white balance setting (daylight setting in daylight, shade in shade, etc) or adjust it yourself in the computer by shooting RAW files. I used Adobe Lightroom to adjust the white balance on my RAW files. It's a great program and I highly recommend it to all shooters. Get a great price on Adobe Lightroom at B&H.

Use auto white balance when you need to shoot quick and you're not too worried about the colors being perfect. But when the colors have to be just right, don't use may just tone down the colors too much.

Photoshop Tutorials: Supermoon Composite Image

View on YouTube to see this Photoshop tutorial in HD

To my regular readers, the title of this post may come as a surprise to you. You know I'm not a big Photoshop guy. I'm more of a "get the image right in camera" guy. I think Photoshop is overused these days to distort our view of human beauty and to create digital abominations passing themselves off as "photos," so I tend not to put out Photoshop tutorials.

BUT, I'm certainly not opposed to using Photoshop to do something that couldn't be done in the camera or couldn't be done with better quality in the long as it's done with good taste. And "good taste" is key. It's always amusing to me when someone will spend 3 hours working in Photoshop to create an image uglier than sin (*cough* HDR *cough*).

So I ran into a situation recently where the image I envisioned was literally impossible to create in-camera on a single exposure. Thus, I had to resort to Photoshop.

We recently had a supermoon, which is where a full moon happens to coincide with the moon's closest approach to Earth in its orbit. The result is a bigger and brighter moon, which I envisioned photographing in Laguna Beach, CA with some silhouetted palm trees in the foreground.

It is, in fact, possible to create this exact photograph in a single exposure, but only if the conditions are just perfect. To do it in a single shot, the moon has to get into the desired position in the sky immediately after the sun has set. Basically, the moon's gotta be where you want it at twilight, not nighttime. That's what happened in the following photo I took in Joshua Tree National Park. I was lucky to have the moon rise up over the mountains immediately after the sun set. The twilight light kept the foreground cactus and the sky illuminated enough so that I could accurately expose both the foreground and the moon.

Moonrise over Cholla Cactus in Joshua Tree National Park

If the moon gets into position just a few minutes too late, the sky and landscape will have no lingering light from the sunset to illuminate them. Thus, if you try to lighten the exposure to get detail in the foreground, the moon will blow out white. If you try to darken the exposure to get detail in the moon, the foreground goes too dark.

That's what happened on my most recent shoot of the supermoon in Laguna Beach. You'll see in the pictures below that when I exposed bright enough to see the palm trees, the moon became overexposed. But when I exposed darker to see detail in the moon, I lost the trees.

Photoshop Tutorials - Supermoon Composite Image

The purist in me really just wants to scrap these photos and do a reshoot when the moon is in the right position at the right time, but the next supermoon is over a year away, so until then I'll venture to the dark side and utilize Photoshop to fix this problem.

The general idea in this Photoshop tutorial is that I will extract the better-looking darker supermoon from the second exposure and overlay onto the brighter moon in the first photo. The process is simple and best explained in the above video tutorial, but here's a write-up to walk you through it:

Step 1
Take your two exposures and make your usual adjustments to color, white balance, contrast, and whatever else you like to do. I did this in Lightroom.

Step 2
Open these 2 exposures in Photoshop and lay them out side-by-side.

Photoshop Tutorials - open both images side-by-side

Step 3
Using the move tool in Photoshop (shortcut "v"), drag the darker exposure on top of the lighter exposure. Hold down Shift when you do this so that the images line up perfectly. You should have 2 layers in your image now - the top layer is the darker exposure, the bottom is the lighter exposure.

Photoshop Tutorials - Drag darker image on top of lighter

Step 4
Now it's time to delete that black sky around the supermoon. I used the magic wand tool and simply clicked on the sky. Photoshop automatically creates a selection around the moon.

Photoshop Tutorials - magic wand tool

Step 5
At this point, I opted to expand my selection by 4 pixels so that it overlapped the moon a tiny bit. This will prevent a black border showing up around the moon. I also feathered the selection by 2 pixels so as to create a softer transition around the moon. This will help create a more seamless blend into the brighter background.

Photoshop Tutorials - expand the selection

Photoshop Tutorials - feather the selection

Step 6
Center the darker supermoon over the brighter moon using the move tool. Use "Free Transform" to enlarge the moon a little bit if necessary.

Photoshop Tutorials - Reposition the supermoon

Photoshop Tutorials - Enlarge the supermoon

Step 7 (Optional)
I then dropped the opacity of the darker supermoon layer to 85%. This lightened the moon a tiny bit by allowing the bright exposure behind it to shine through. I did this because I felt that the darker supermoon looked too dark and out of place on the brighter background exposure.

Photoshop Tutorials - Drop the Opacity

Step 8
Save the new file, because you're done, baby.

Photoshop Tutorials - Supermoon Composite ImageThe completed composite image
Click to Enlarge